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Significance of International Trade
Of goods and services were exchanged between countries. Trade on the parties is foreign trade. Total foreign trade of the countries constituting the world trade. Since modern monetary and credit relations between countries, scientific and technological cooperation based on the movement of goods to and so, so international trade is the basic form of modern international economic ties.
A brief history of international trade is the international division of labor and commodity exchange on the basis of formation. In slave society, due to low productivity, traffic inconvenience, not the amount of circulation of commodities, international trade is very limited, commodity trading mainly slaves and slave owners for luxury consumption. In feudal society, with the social and economic development, international trade also developed. During this period, China, Europe and Asia via the Silk Road countries in international trade, the Mediterranean, the Baltic, the North Sea and the Black Sea coast also trade among countries. Early 15 century to 16 century geographical discovery, and promote the development of international trade. He was involved in commodity trade mainly on the general consumer goods and luxury consumption for feudal lords.
After the capitalist mode of production, especially after the industrial revolution, due to the rapid increase in productivity, trade, expanding production scale, rapid development of international trade, and began a world scale. From the 17th century to the 19th century, foreign trade volume rising capitalist countries. Britain in international trade and long-term monopoly. Participation in international trade of goods was mainly on the general consumer goods, industrial raw materials and machinery. 19th century into the era of imperialism, the formation of a unified all-encompassing world economy and world markets.
Thereafter, the impact of the First World War and from 1929 to 1933, the world economic crisis of the capitalist world economy has been greatly damaged, and the sharp drop in world trade stagnated. After World War II, further expansion of international trade and development, the United States as the number one international trade power. After the 1950s, with the socialization of production, increasing degree of internationalization, especially the rapid development of new scientific and technological revolution in productivity, international trade and more active than ever with many new features, made trade products have more than primary products dominate, new products are emerging trade are becoming flexible.
Contemporary international trade mainly to developed countries, the United States remains the world's largest trading nation status but declined; foreign trade Germany, Japan and other countries have great development; the majority of developing countries in international trade, the share of small , but compared with its own foreign trade has also been a great development, international trade, a force to be reckoned with. International trade has a decisive influence in contemporary international affairs, economic development of their own countries is also important.
And the theory of international trade is the study of the international laws of commodity circulation theory. It is to clarify a series of basic questions, such as why it happened between countries commodity exchange; the nature and characteristics of international trade in various historical periods determined by what and so on. International trade theory should include broad international balance of payments theory and the theory of value.
Practice practice of international trade refers to a series of business activities to complete the import or export an exchange. Generally can be divided into three stages: preparatory work prior to the transaction. Enter into negotiations and contracts transactions. fulfill the contract.
External Trade Statistics, countries vary. Some countries import and export division of the border, where the goods enter the territory of the inclusion of imports, said the total imports; where merchandise is shipped out of the country's exports, said the total exports, including re-export of imported goods that is export unprocessed again . Total imports plus total exports of a country's total trade that is. Britain, Canada, Australia and other countries foreign trade statistics in this way. Some countries in the customs territory of the standard division of import and export, although entering the country but did not enter the customs territory of the merchandise is not imported into the customs territory of goods only to the inclusion of imports, said the special imports; domestic products shipped out of the customs territory and imported after unprocessed and shipped out of the customs territory of goods included in the export, said the special export. Specialized imports plus exports that is specifically dedicated to trade. Germany, France, Italy and other countries foreign trade statistics in this way. The above two methods are not included in the foreign trade volume of goods in transit. Import and export countries generally are not equal, the difference between the import and export a period of time called the trade balance. Called out over exports over imports, trade surplus or trade surplus, exports less than imports called trade deficit, trade deficit or trade deficit; import and export trade balance called equal.
International trade size expressed in world trade. To avoid double counting, only the statistics of countries importing or exporting to world exports or imports for world trade. Because the total import and export trade of countries, it is not equal to the sum of world trade countries trade. As countries are generally on fob export prices, cif import, so world imports is always greater than world exports. World trade is usually calculated in US dollar-denominated. Realistic trade affected by price changes, often do not accurately reflect the actual changes in trade, world trade and therefore to a certain period at constant prices is calculated, so as to measure the changes in international trade.
There are several ways of international trade: by mode of transport of goods, the business can be divided into land, sea trade, air transport trade and mail order trade. Most international trade goods are transported by sea. Press the course of trade if there is third party intervention, it can be divided into direct and indirect trade transactions into two categories. The former namely direct trade commodity-producing countries and consuming countries; the latter is among commodity-producing countries and consuming countries middlemen involved in a third country, there are a variety of specific forms. One is from the commodity-producing countries, although directly to consumers, but the two sides trading relationship does not occur directly, but through a third country auction broker; the other is the first producer of the product to a third country, and then by the middlemen products sold to the consumer. Moreover, a country's foreign trade by the operating companies of foreign trade is also an indirect trade. Press the number of countries participating in the transaction process can be divided into bilateral and multilateral trade. Bilateral trade deal that is producing and consuming countries carried out directly. But a country's products are often not the Almighty adapt to each other's needs, so it will have the balance of trade, resulting in trade imbalances and payment difficulties, which requires the involvement of other countries. That multilateral trading across multiple countries in a wide range of transactions, it is easy to make each transaction States and all they need to achieve trade balance. Press liquidation mode can be divided into cash and barter trade. Spot currency trading that is paid directly import goods, modern international trade major means of payment for the dollar, German mark, Japanese yen and other currencies freely convertible. That is, both are denominated in barter goods were liquidated, which could make up for shortage of foreign exchange difficulties, and to promote the export of domestic products. Direct replacement because there is a certain degree of difficulty, so often adopt a more flexible form of generalized barter trade, which provides that in a period with several goods exchanged were settled, the overall balance. Press Relations import and export transactions can be divided into unilateral import, export and other trade unilaterally. The first two he refers to a country exporting and importing country has nothing to do, is independent, with the latter refers to the requirements of import and export transactions between the two countries want to like. Use more modern international trade before the two forms.
, The ink bilateral trade friction and competition
Imbalance between the two countries bilateral trade position will undoubtedly bring some negative impact on the relationship. China and Mexico, there are many friction in bilateral trade. According to WTO statistics, 1995--2005 Mexican anti-dumping cases from a total of 19, accounting for 10 percent of the developing anti-dumping cases against Chinese number, ranking second in China in developing countries the number of cases of anti-dumping. Since Mexico China as a non-market economy countries, China also contributed to the negative situation. In addition to trade friction, China and Mexico in third markets (mainly the United States market) there is also fierce competition. After NAFTA was officially launched, although Chinese exports to the United States in some specific sectors (such as textile and garment industry) was affected, but soon more than China once again become Mexico's exports to the US superpower. Textile industry is one of the four major industries of Mexico, while China is a big manufacturing country, the textile industry is also very developed in the field of industry, both each other's biggest rival in the North American market. Chinese textile machinery enterprises have invested in factories in Mexico, targeting the huge US market, which will inevitably lead to market competition between enterprises in China and Mexico.